HRH Sultan Ibn Salman

Official name: Republic of Uzbekistan
Location: Uzbekistan lies at the heart of Asia, between the Amu Derya and Syr Derya Rivers. It is bordered by Afghanistan in the South, Turkmenistan in the West, Kazakhstan in the North, and Tajikistan and Kyrgyz Republic in the East.
Total Land Area: 414,240 km2

Land boundaries: 6,221 km
Capital: Tashkent
Official Language: Uzbek

Population: 26,209,055 (2004)

Show Cities of Uzbekistan
  • Bukhara

  • Islamic Monuments Of Bukhara

    Bukhara is one of the most ancient cities in the Central Asia. It is located on the Silk Road and therefore has been a prominent center of trade, culture, education and religion. The city is situated on a flat terrain, at the lower part of Zaravshan valley (close to Kyzyl-Kum Desert) and the oasis of Bukhara is irrigated by the river Zaravshan and its numerous canals. Its climate is distinctively continental with very dry air most of the year. The city was officially founded in 500 BC in the area called “Ark” as a vassal state of the Persian Empire, however the Bukhara oasis has been inhabited since 3000 BC. In 892, Bukhara became the capital city of Samanid Empire, established by Ismail ibn Amad.

    In 16th century, Bukhara became the capital of Bukhara Khanate, under Shaybanid dynasty. During this period, educational reforms were carried out and Bukhara became a prominent center of education and theology in the Central Asia with its famous mosques, madrasas, libraries and scholars. This prosperous era followed a period of short-lived dynasties until mid 18th century. In 1753, Bukhara became the capital city of Mangut dynasty, which lasted until 1920. In 1868, Bukhara was annexed to Russian Empire. In 1925, Bukhara was integrated into the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. Since 1991, Bukhara is an important historical city of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

    As Bukhara is one of the most complete examples of medieval cities in the Central Asia, it was inscribed on the World Heritage List of UNESCO in 1993. The historic center of Bukhara is an open-air museum, which is the evidence of the long history of the city.

  • Khorezm
  • Samarkand

  • Islamic Monuments Of Samarkand

    Samarkand is one of the oldest and inhabited cities in the world and is situated on the ancient Silk Road between China and Europe through the Zerafshan Valley. While Islam was spreading all over the Asia region under the Umayyad Caliph Omar, Samarkand became a generative and constitutional part of the Islamic world. By the power shifted from Umayyads to Abbasids, Samarkand protected and raised its importance. From the 6th to 13th century the city grew larger and more populous and controlled by many different dynasties as Western Turks, Arabs, Persian Samanids, Kara-Khanid Turks, Seljuk Turks, Kara-Khitan and Khorezmshah.

    In the 16th century, when the Shaybanids moved their capital to Bukhara, Samarkand went into decline and lost its importance for a time. In 1868, the city came under Russian rule and Samarkand became the administrative centre and divided into two parts; old town and the European town. Throughout the centuries, the city of Samarkand has preserved its cultural, historical and political importance and stayed as the centre of Central Asia.


  • Shakhrisyabz

  • Islamic Monuments Of Shakhrisyabz

    Shakhrisyabz city is situated on the Great Silk Road 130 km from the centre of one of the southern regions of Uzbekistan, Kashkadarya and 70 km to the south from Samarkand. Shakhrisyabz (in Persian "Green City") - the medieval Kesh, is located in the eastern part of Kashkadarya valley surrounded by mountains. Abundance of water and verdure, fertile soils have predetermined beginning of city civilization of I millennium BC. The constant fighting of population against conquers was reflected in peculiar planning of cities, which were formed as city-fortresses, surrounded by powerful walls. One of them was ancient Kesh, the territory of which in XIII became the major planning structure of Timurid's city. In XIV century Shakhrisyabz was a large cultural and political centre of Kesh region.

  • Tashkent

  • Islamic Monuments Of Tashkent

    Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province.

    Tashkent is situated in a well watered plain to the west of the last Altai mountains on the road between Shymkent and Samarkand. The city belonged to the region of Chach in the Chirchik Valley in the middle reaches of the Syr River.  It is a lively tectonic area suffering large numbers of tremors and some earthquakes.

    In the course of its long history, the town has moved somewhat, and the earliest remains have been covered by later layers. The oldest archaeological monument is the Mi'ng-Uryuk Hill on the Salar channel in the center of the city, which was the site of ancient and early medieval Tashkent. At the beginning of the 8th century, before the region came under the sway of Islam,  the town occupied some 30 ha and had a frotress with a citadel, defensive walls enclosing the city proper and a suburban quarter for artisans. The Arab conquest in the early 8th century destroyed the irrigation system, but the city flourished again in the 9th century when Binket, located on a branch of the Chirchik 4.5 km southwest of Ming-Uryuk, became a large economic and cultural center for Transoxiana. Binket, now known as the "old city," had a citadel, a square city proper covering 16 ha and quartered by two main roads, and inner and outer suburbs the whole enclosed by walls. The walls of the inner suburb had ten gates; those of the outer had seven. The City proper had three gates; a fourth led to the citadel. In the 10th century the city and its suburbs covered 400 ha. At the end of the 10th century the city was taken by the Qarakhanids (r.992-1211), and in the early 13th century it fell to the Khwarazmshahs. Although some of the town, especially its western part, was heavily developed, the city lost its economic and political role.

    The town was severely damaged during the Mongol conquest of 1219 and only regained its importance under the Timurids (r:1370-1506). The center of the City took form in the area of the Charsu maidan, where a madrasa (destr.) and Friday Mosque (1451 ; rest. 1888) were founded by Khwaja Ahrar (1404-92), leader of the Naqshbandi order of Sufis. The Charsu, the intersection of the two main roads was lined with bazaars. In this period, many mausolea were built. Tashkent reached its peak in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the courts of the local sultans became gathering places for poets, scholars, musicians, theologians, calligraphers and architects.

    Tashkent remained a bustling commercial and craft center during the 18th cent ury when CentralAsia underwent an economic crisis. In the 19th century when the city was incorporated into the Kokand khanate, economic links with Russia were developed. The city flourished and was divided into four large sectors-Sheykhantaur, Sibzar, Kukcha and Beshagach. A new fortress for the Kokand khan was built on the banks of the Ankhor Canal. After the region was annexed by the Russians in the 19th century,

    Tashkent became the main town of Uzbekistan. Alongside the old town, a confused mass of narrow streets, a new town (1865) was erected following European design principles of radial and grid planning.

    In the 20th century Tashkent became the largest city in Central Asia. Vast housing estates were built after World War II, when Tashkent became a major industrial center and haven for refugees. After much of the city was devastated by an earthquake on 26 April 1966, it was decided to demolish virtually all the old buildings except for a few designated historical monuments. New buildings were designed to resist earthquakes and were often decorated

    with traditional materials.

    As the capital of Uzbekistan, Tashkent is home to many major museums.

  • Termez
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    OIC-Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA)
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