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Turkey



Official name: Republic of Turkey
Location: Turkey is the largest country in Europe (aside from Russia). It is bordered by Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran in the East, Iraq, Syria and the Mediterranean Sea in the South, Greece and Bulgaria in the North-west, the Black Sea in the North, and the Aegean Sea in the West.
Total Land Area: 769,630 km2

Land boundaries: 2,875 km
Capital: Ankara
Official Language: Turkish

Population: 72,219,794 (2004)

Show Cities of Turkey
  • Amasya

  • Islamic Monuments Of Amasya
  • Ankara
  • Bolu

  • Islamic Monuments Of Bolu
  • Bursa
  • Diyarbak─▒r

  • Islamic Monuments Of Diyarbak─▒r
  • D├╝zce

  • Islamic Monuments Of D├╝zce
  • Edirne
  • Erzurum

  • Islamic Monuments Of Erzurum
  • Eski┼čehir

  • Islamic Monuments Of Eski┼čehir
  • Hatay

  • Islamic Monuments Of Hatay
  • Isparta

  • Islamic Monuments Of Isparta
  • ─░stanbul (Asia)

  • Islamic Monuments Of ─░stanbul (Asia)

    Istanbul is situated on both the Asian and European continents, being the capital city of three major civilizations throughout its history for more than 2,000 years. The first city built in Istanbul was founded on the historical peninsula in circa 660 BC, by the Greek colony of Megarians led by Byzas and it was called Byzantion. The peninsula was enclosed by the waters of Bosphorus and the Marmara Sea. The Golden Horn, which forms a protected, natural harbor on the north side of the peninsula, is situated at the passage between the two continents.

    The city of Byzantion was sieged by the Roman leader Septimus Severus in 196 AD, who destroyed the city walls and some of the public buildings. Later, he restored the city and enlarged it with new walls and buildings. Emperor Constantinus started ruling the Roman Empire in 324 and decided to reconstruct Byzantion on a larger scale, since it was a more suitable capital for the new Christian empire than Rome. Thus, the city became ÔÇťConstantinopolisÔÇŁ, the city of Constantine the Great, the capital of the East Roman Empire in 330.

    The Byzantine city was conquered by the Ottoman sultan, Mehmed II, on May 29, 1453. Thereafter, the city became the capital of the Ottoman Empire and flourished once again, developing an Islamic character through the social and economical institutions. New mosques and complexes (big public edifices) were built by sultans and viziers and small housing units developed around these religious centers. Bedestans (shops for selling valuable goods),  caravanserais (accommodation units for merchants), hans (inns with shops), different crafts assembling in different group of shops, together with mosques, palaces and surrounding residential zones formed the urban character of the city.

    After the First World War (1914-1918), Istanbul was surrendered by the Allies in 1918, who were defeated by the Turkish army in 1923. On October, 29, 1923 Turkish Republic was declared by the Turkish Parliament, thus abrogating the Ottoman Empire. From that period on, Istanbul was no longer the capital city. During the last years of the Ottoman Empire, the historical peninsula was deserted, while the more westernized areas continued to grow.

    The desertion process of Istanbul continued until 1950s, with the immigration of non-Muslim minorities. After 1950s, Istanbul encountered a new flow of immigrations, this time coming from Anatolian cities to settle in deserted areas or the suburbs of the city. With its ever-growing population, Istanbul continued to expand its boundaries in an uncontrolled urbanization in the proceeding years.

  • ─░stanbul (Europe)

  • Islamic Monuments Of ─░stanbul (Europe)

    Istanbul is situated on both the Asian and European continents, being the capital city of three major civilizations throughout its history for more than 2,000 years. The first city built in Istanbul was founded on the historical peninsula in circa 660 BC, by the Greek colony of Megarians led by Byzas and it was called Byzantion. The peninsula was enclosed by the waters of Bosphorus and the Marmara Sea. The Golden Horn, which forms a protected, natural harbor on the north side of the peninsula, is situated at the passage between the two continents.

    The city of Byzantion was sieged by the Roman leader Septimus Severus in 196 AD, who destroyed the city walls and some of the public buildings. Later, he restored the city and enlarged it with new walls and buildings. Emperor Constantinus started ruling the Roman Empire in 324 and decided to reconstruct Byzantion on a larger scale, since it was a more suitable capital for the new Christian empire than Rome. Thus, the city became ÔÇťConstantinopolisÔÇŁ, the city of Constantine the Great, the capital of the East Roman Empire in 330.

    The Byzantine city was conquered by the Ottoman sultan, Mehmed II, on May 29, 1453. Thereafter, the city became the capital of the Ottoman Empire and flourished once again, developing an Islamic character through the social and economical institutions. New mosques and complexes (big public edifices) were built by sultans and viziers and small housing units developed around these religious centers. Bedestans (shops for selling valuable goods),  caravanserais (accommodation units for merchants), hans (inns with shops), different crafts assembling in different group of shops, together with mosques, palaces and surrounding residential zones formed the urban character of the city.

    After the First World War (1914-1918), Istanbul was surrendered by the Allies in 1918, who were defeated by the Turkish army in 1923. On October, 29, 1923 Turkish Republic was declared by the Turkish Parliament, thus abrogating the Ottoman Empire. From that period on, Istanbul was no longer the capital city. During the last years of the Ottoman Empire, the historical peninsula was deserted, while the more westernized areas continued to grow.

    The desertion process of Istanbul continued until 1950s, with the immigration of non-Muslim minorities. After 1950s, Istanbul encountered a new flow of immigrations, this time coming from Anatolian cities to settle in deserted areas or the suburbs of the city. With its ever-growing population, Istanbul continued to expand its boundaries in an uncontrolled urbanization in the proceeding years.

  • ─░zmir

  • Islamic Monuments Of ─░zmir
  • Kastamonu

  • Islamic Monuments Of Kastamonu
  • Kayseri

  • Islamic Monuments Of Kayseri
  • K─▒rklareli
  • Kocaeli

  • Islamic Monuments Of Kocaeli
  • Konya
  • Manisa

  • Islamic Monuments Of Manisa
  • Mardin

  • Islamic Monuments Of Mardin
  • Ni─čde

  • Islamic Monuments Of Ni─čde
  • Sakarya

  • Islamic Monuments Of Sakarya
  • ┼×anl─▒ Urfa

  • Islamic Monuments Of ┼×anl─▒ Urfa
  • Sivas
  • Tekirda─č
  • Van

  • Islamic Monuments Of Van
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    OIC-Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA)
    Alemdar Caddesi, No. 15, BÔbřÔlţ Giri■i Ca­alo­lu, 34110 Fatih Istanbul, Turkey 
    Phone : +90 212 402 00 00   Fax: +90 212 258 43 65

    Visitors  95884